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Female singing voices are also more effective at soothing premature infants. Despite being born premature, infants show a preference for the sound of a female singing voice, making it more beneficial than instrumental music.
The Gato Box is a small rectangular instrument that stimulates a prenatal heartbeat sound in a soft and rhythmic manner that has also been effective in aiding sucking behaviours.
The rhythm supports movement when feeding and promotes healthy sucking patterns. By improving sucking patterns, babies are able to coordinate the important dual mechanisms of breathing, sucking and swallowing needed to feed, thus promoting growth and weight gain.
When this treatment proves effective, infants are able to leave the hospital earlier. Multimodal stimulation and music: By combining music, such as lullabies and multimodal stimulation, premature infants were discharged from the NICU sooner than those infants who did not receive therapy. Multimodal stimulation MMS includes the applications of auditory, tactile, vestibular, and visual stimulation that helps aid in premature infant development. The combination of music and MMS helps premature infants sleep and conserve vital energy required to gain weight more rapidly.
Studies have shown that girls respond more positively than boys during multimodal stimulation. Both are used to stimulate the sounds of the womb. The Remo Ocean Disk, a round musical instrument that mimics the fluid sounds of the womb, has been shown to benefit decreased heart rate after therapeutic uses, as well as promoting healthy sleep patterns, lower respiratory rates and improve sucking behavior. The sound environment the NICU provides can be disruptive, but music therapy can mask unwanted auditory stimuli and promote a calm environment that reduces the complications for high-risk or failure-to-thrive infants.
Parent-infant bonding can also be affected by the noise of the NICU, which in turn can delay the interactions between parents and their premature infants. Music therapy creates a relaxing and peaceful environment for parents to speak and spend time with their babies while incubated.
Singing lullabies therapeutically can promote relaxation and decrease heart rate in premature infants. By calming premature babies, it allows for them to preserve their energy, which creates a stable environment for growth.
Lullabies, such as "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star" or other culturally relevant lullabies, have been shown to greatly soothe babies. These techniques can also improve overall sleep quality, calorie intake and feeding behaviors, which aid in development of the baby while they are still in the NICU.
Singing has also shown greater results in improving oxygen saturation levels for infants while incubated than has mothers' speech alone. This technique promoted high levels of oxygen for longer periods of time. Many infants show a decrease in both their average heart and respiratory rates. The infants' average blood pressure typically decreases after the music therapy sessions, as well.
Although there are individual differences between each of the infants, most infants show improvements after music therapy interventions.
Advanced technology that can monitor cortical activity offers a look at how music engages and produces changes in the brain during the perception and production of musical stimuli. Music therapy, when used with other rehabilitation methods, has increased the success rate of sensorimotor, cognitive, and communicative rehabilitation.
The achievement of a physical rehabilitation goal relies on the child's existing motivation and feelings towards music and their commitment to engage in meaningful, rewarding efforts.
Regaining full functioning also confides in the prognosis of recovery, the condition of the client, and the environmental resources available. Both techniques use systematic processes where the therapists assist the client by using musical experiences and connections that collaborate as a dynamic force of change toward rehabilitation.
For example, a patient with chronic pain may decrease the physiological result of stress and draw attention away from the pain by focusing on music. Neurological impairments following a brain injury can be in the form of apraxia — loss to perform purposeful movements, dysarthria , muscle control disturbances due to damage of the central nervous system , aphasia defect in expression causing distorted speech , or language comprehension.
Singing training has been found to improve lung, speech clarity, and coordination of speech muscles, thus, accelerating rehabilitation of such neurological impairments. For example, melodic intonation therapy is the practice of communicating with others by singing to enhance speech or increase speech production by promoting socialization, and emotional expression. Studies on the long term effects on music therapy in children with autism indicate many positive effects in children.
Some of these effects include increased communication skills, decreased stress, increased social interaction, and the ability to be creative and to express themselves. Music therapy not only benefits the child with autism, but the family as a whole.
Many of the mothers of children with autism claim that music therapy sessions have allowed their child to interact more with the family and the world. Music therapy is also beneficial in that it gives children an outlet to use outside of the sessions. Many children after participating in music therapy want to keep making music long after the sessions end.
This article concluded that music can help autistic patients hone their motor and attention skills as well as healthy neurodevelopment of socio-communication and interaction skills. Music therapy also resulted in positive improvement in selective attention, speech production, and language processing and acquisition in autistic patients  Heart disease[ edit ] According to a Cochrane review, listening to music may improve heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure in those with coronary heart disease CHD.
While both groups showed an increase in their standard of living, the group that used the music therapy showed more of an increase than the group that didn't.
The group that used music therapy also showed less anxiousness and depression after the therapy. While both groups showed an increase in the strength of their non-dominant hands, the group with music therapy showed a much larger increase. Also, patients that underwent music therapy were able to regulate their emotions better and showed increased communication as a whole. Hanne Mette Ridder, a musical therapy expert from Denmark, studied the importance of the roles of musical therapists and caregivers on the mental well-being of patients suffering from dementia.
The use of musical interaction has been proven as a key factor in many countries for the improvement of older adults overall health. According to Karen Stuart, South Africa has poor quality services provided by hospital care facilities to elders dealing with dementia, therefore she discovered singing to be an effective method for improving patients well-being.
The playing of classical music or therapeutic singing resulted in: enjoyment, awareness, and engagement. Providing a source of music in hospitals or care centers are valuable methods for contributing to the care of the patients, while also relieving stress placed on the caregiver and forming a bond between the patient and the caretaker.
A meta-study of over subjects showed that music therapy produces highly significant improvements in social behaviors, overt behaviors like wandering and restlessness, reductions in agitated behaviors, and improvements to cognitive defects, measured with reality orientation and face recognition tests.
The effectiveness of the treatment seems to be strongly dependent on the patient and the quality and length of treatment.
In the group, these adults engaged in singing, drumming, improvisation, and movement. Each of these activities engaged the adults in different ways. The singing aided with memory, as these adults improved memorization skills in by taking out specific words in the chorus of a song and by repeating phrases back to the music therapist when the therapist sang a phrase of a song to them. Drumming led to increased socialization of the group, as it allowed the patients collaborate in order to create particular rhythms.
Improvisation allowed the patients to get out of their comfort zone and taught them how to better deal with anxiety. Lastly, movement with either one arm or two increased social interaction between the patients. Many authors suspect that music has a soothing effect on the patient by affecting how noise is perceived: music renders noise familiar, or buffers the patient from overwhelming or extraneous noise in their environment.
Others suggest that music serves as a sort of mediator for social interactions, providing a vessel through which to interact with others without requiring much cognitive load. Sacks had a genuine interest in trying to help people affected with neurological disorders and other phenomena associated with music and how it can provide access to otherwise unreachable emotional states, revivify neurological avenues that have been frozen, evoke memories of earlier, lost events or states of being and attempts to bring those with neurological disorders back to a time when the world was much richer for them.
He was a firm believer that music has the power to heal. Melodic intonation therapy MIT , developed in by Neurological researchers Sparks, Helm, and Albert, is a method used by music therapists and speech-language pathologists to help people with communication disorders caused by damage to the left hemisphere of the brain by engaging the singing abilities and possibly engaging language-capable regions in the undamaged right hemisphere.
The mechanisms of this success are yet to be fully understood. It is commonly agreed that while speech is lateralized mostly to the left hemisphere for right-handed and most left-handed individuals , some speech functionality is also distributed in the right hemisphere. Psychiatric disorders[ edit ] A meta-analysis on the effects of music therapy in schizophrenic patients showed that the treatment in patients who underwent music therapy was more effective than patients who did not undergo music therapy with their treatments.
Some of the positive effects that resulted from the music therapy sessions include decreased aggression, as well as less hallucinations and delusions. However, effects were inconsistent across studies and depended on the number of music therapy sessions as well as the quality of the music therapy provided.
Silverman is published extensively in peer-reviewed journals and is the author of scholarly texts as well. He works in music therapy, special education rehabilitation and research. The purpose of this work is to discuss the need for additional research in the field of controlled psychiatric music therapy. Emotion stimulates the evolution of social relationships, acting as a signal to mediate the behavior of other organisms.
In some contexts, the expression of emotion both voluntary and involuntary could be seen as strategic moves in the transactions between different organisms. The situated perspective on emotion states that conceptual thought is not an inherent part of emotion, since emotion is an action-oriented form of skillful engagement with the world. Griffiths and Scarantino suggested that this perspective on emotion could be helpful in understanding phobias, as well as the emotions of infants and animals.
Genetics[ edit ] Emotions can motivate social interactions and relationships and therefore are directly related with basic physiology , particularly with the stress systems.
This is important because emotions are related to the anti-stress complex, with an oxytocin-attachment system, which plays a major role in bonding. Emotional phenotype temperaments affect social connectedness and fitness in complex social systems.
Information that is encoded in the DNA sequences provides the blueprint for assembling proteins that make up our cells.
Zygotes require genetic information from their parental germ cells, and at every speciation event, heritable traits that have enabled its ancestor to survive and reproduce successfully are passed down along with new traits that could be potentially beneficial to the offspring.
In the five million years since the lineages leading to modern humans and chimpanzees split, only about 1. This suggests that everything that separates us from chimpanzees must be encoded in that very small amount of DNA, including our behaviors. Students that study animal behaviors have only identified intraspecific examples of gene-dependent behavioral phenotypes.
In voles Microtus spp. How emotions are formed[ edit ] Neurobiological explanation[ edit ] Based on discoveries made through neural mapping of the limbic system , the neurobiological explanation of human emotion is that emotion is a pleasant or unpleasant mental state organized in the limbic system of the mammalian brain. If distinguished from reactive responses of reptiles , emotions would then be mammalian elaborations of general vertebrate arousal patterns, in which neurochemicals for example, dopamine , noradrenaline , and serotonin step-up or step-down the brain's activity level, as visible in body movements, gestures and postures.
Emotions can likely be mediated by pheromones see fear. Paleocircuits are neural platforms for bodily expression configured before the advent of cortical circuits for speech. They consist of pre-configured pathways or networks of nerve cells in the forebrain , brain stem and spinal cord.
The motor centers of reptiles react to sensory cues of vision, sound, touch, chemical, gravity, and motion with pre-set body movements and programmed postures. With the arrival of night-active mammals , smell replaced vision as the dominant sense, and a different way of responding arose from the olfactory sense, which is proposed to have developed into mammalian emotion and emotional memory.
The mammalian brain invested heavily in olfaction to succeed at night as reptiles slept — one explanation for why olfactory lobes in mammalian brains are proportionally larger than in the reptiles. These odor pathways gradually formed the neural blueprint for what was later to become our limbic brain.
MacLean  suggested that emotion is related to a group of structures in the center of the brain called the limbic system , which includes the hypothalamus , cingulate cortex , hippocampi , and other structures. More recent research has shown that some of these limbic structures are not as directly related to emotion as others are while some non-limbic structures have been found to be of greater emotional relevance.
Prefrontal cortex[ edit ] There is ample evidence that the left prefrontal cortex is activated by stimuli that cause positive approach.
This was demonstrated for moderately attractive visual stimuli  and replicated and extended to include negative stimuli. The Valence Model predicted that anger, a negative emotion, would activate the right prefrontal cortex. The Direction Model predicted that anger, an approach emotion, would activate the left prefrontal cortex. The second model was supported.
Support for the Action Tendency Model passivity related to right prefrontal activity comes from research on shyness  and research on behavioral inhibition. They include thirst, hunger for air, hunger for food, pain and hunger for specific minerals etc. There are two constituents of a primordial emotion--the specific sensation which when severe may be imperious, and the compelling intention for gratification by a consummatory act.
He has said that the amygdala may release hormones due to a trigger such as an innate reaction to seeing a snake , but "then we elaborate it through cognitive and conscious processes. They emerge as a combination of the physical properties of your body, a flexible brain that wires itself to whatever environment it develops in, and your culture and upbringing, which provide that environment.
Disciplinary approaches[ edit ] Many different disciplines have produced work on the emotions. Human sciences study the role of emotions in mental processes, disorders, and neural mechanisms. In psychiatry , emotions are examined as part of the discipline's study and treatment of mental disorders in humans. Nursing studies emotions as part of its approach to the provision of holistic health care to humans. Psychology examines emotions from a scientific perspective by treating them as mental processes and behavior and they explore the underlying physiological and neurological processes.
In neuroscience sub-fields such as social neuroscience and affective neuroscience , scientists study the neural mechanisms of emotion by combining neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood.
In linguistics , the expression of emotion may change to the meaning of sounds. In education , the role of emotions in relation to learning is examined. Social sciences often examine emotion for the role that it plays in human culture and social interactions. In sociology , emotions are examined for the role they play in human society, social patterns and interactions, and culture.
In anthropology , the study of humanity, scholars use ethnography to undertake contextual analyses and cross-cultural comparisons of a range of human activities.
Some anthropology studies examine the role of emotions in human activities. In the field of communication sciences , critical organizational scholars have examined the role of emotions in organizations, from the perspectives of managers, employees, and even customers. A focus on emotions in organizations can be credited to Arlie Russell Hochschild 's concept of emotional labor. The University of Queensland hosts EmoNet,  an e-mail distribution list representing a network of academics that facilitates scholarly discussion of all matters relating to the study of emotion in organizational settings.
The list was established in January and has over members from across the globe. In economics , the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, emotions are analyzed in some sub-fields of microeconomics, in order to assess the role of emotions on download decision-making and risk perception.
In criminology , a social science approach to the study of crime, scholars often draw on behavioral sciences, sociology, and psychology; emotions are examined in criminology issues such as anomie theory and studies of "toughness," aggressive behavior, and hooliganism. In law , which underpins civil obedience, politics, economics and society, evidence about people's emotions is often raised in tort law claims for compensation and in criminal law prosecutions against alleged lawbreakers as evidence of the defendant's state of mind during trials, sentencing, and parole hearings.
In political science , emotions are examined in a number of sub-fields, such as the analysis of voter decision-making. In philosophy , emotions are studied in sub-fields such as ethics , the philosophy of art for example, sensory—emotional values, and matters of taste and sentimentality , and the philosophy of music see also Music and emotion.
In history , scholars examine documents and other sources to interpret and analyze past activities; speculation on the emotional state of the authors of historical documents is one of the tools of interpretation.
In literature and film-making, the expression of emotion is the cornerstone of genres such as drama, melodrama, and romance. In communication studies , scholars study the role that emotion plays in the dissemination of ideas and messages. Emotion is also studied in non-human animals in ethology , a branch of zoology which focuses on the scientific study of animal behavior.
Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with strong ties to ecology and evolution.
Ethologists often study one type of behavior for example, aggression in a number of unrelated animals. History[ edit ] The history of emotions has become an increasingly popular topic recently, with some scholars[ who? Historians, like other social scientists, assume that emotions, feelings and their expressions are regulated in different ways by both different cultures and different historical times, and the constructivist school of history claims even that some sentiments and meta-emotions , for example Schadenfreude , are learnt and not only regulated by culture.