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It was revoked in The second emergency in India was proclaimed in by President V. Giri on the eve of the Indo-Pakistani War of The first two emergencies were in the face of external aggression and War. They were hence external emergencies. Even as the second emergency was in progress, another internal emergency was proclaimed by President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed , with Indira Gandhi as prime minister in In , the second and the third emergencies were together revoked.
State emergency See also: Federalism in India If the president is not fully satisfied, on the basis of the report of the governor of the concerned state or from other sources that the governance in a state cannot be carried out according to the provisions in the constitution, he can proclaim under Article a state of emergency in the state.
Under Article of the Indian constitution , it can be imposed from six months to a maximum period of three years with repeated parliamentary approval every six months. If the emergency needs to be extended for more than three years, this can be achieved by a constitutional amendment , as has happened in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir.
During such an emergency, the president can take over the entire work of the executive, and the governor administers the state in the name of the president. The Legislative Assembly can be dissolved or may remain in suspended animation.
The parliament makes laws on the 66 subjects of the state list  see National emergency for explanation. When a state emergency is imposed under this provision, the state is said to be under " President's rule.
It can last up to a maximum of three years via extensions after each 6-month period. However, after one year it can be extended only if A state of National Emergency has been declared in the country or in the particular state. The Election Commission finds it difficult to organise an election in that state. The Sarkaria Commission held that presidents have unconstitutionally misused the provision of Article many times for achieving political motives, by dismissing the state governments although there was no constitutional break down in the states.
There is no provision in the constitution to re-promulgate president's rule in a state when the earlier promulgation ceased to operate for want of parliaments approval within two months duration.
During in Andhra Pradesh, president's rule was first imposed on 1 March and it ceased to operate on 30 April President's rule was promulgated after being fully aware that the earliest parliament session is feasible at the end of May after the general elections. It was reimposed again unconstitutionally on 28 April by the president. However, Union government can insist for compliance of its loan terms when a state has outstanding loan charged to the consolidated fund of India or an outstanding loan in respect of which a guarantee has been given by the Government of India under the liability of consolidated fund of India.
Such an emergency must be approved by the parliament within two months by a simple majority.
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Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Email Address. To visit our new blog visit http: It is freely available over the Internet, and can be downloaded as pdf file. But there are two periods when most of us miss out on making Newspaper notes: Municipal bonds could tap these sources of fund and help get many projects off the ground.
The money raised from municipal bonds can boost quality of life in cities. Job prospects in the locality may also look up. These bonds may also prove a good investment option for investors looking beyond fixed deposits and small saving schemes. Municipal bonds in India enjoy tax-free status if they conform to certain rules and their interest rates will be market-linked. Tradibility allows it not to be held till maturity. SEBI has put in place several conditions for city corporations to tap the public.
One, the corporation needs to have investment grade credit rating and must contribute at least 20 per cent of the project cost. Two, it must not have defaulted on any loans in the last one year. Three, it required to maintain full asset cover to repay the principal amount. Revenues from the project for which bonds were raised are to be kept in a separate escrow account. And banks or financial institutions would monitor the account regularly.
In case of public issue of debt, the regulation says the revenue bonds intended to be issued shall have a minimum investment rating and it should have a minimum tenure of three years or such period as specified by the board from time to time.
The maximum tenure should not exceed thirty yearsIn the event of non-receipt of minimum subscription all application money shall be refunded within 12 days Q: You are working a Superintendent of Police in a district where trafficking or women and children is rampant. Your wife who is very concerned and involved in many social works in the city insists you to come up with some innovative ideas to prevent trafficking, to identify trafficked persons and rescue them in your capacity as Superintendent of Police.
The problem is severe and has affected thousands of families over the years and it has also brought bad name to the district.
What measures will you come up with to address the issues raised by your wife? Suggest pragmatic and logical measures. Strengthen the ground and on field investigating and raiding teams.
Making the local police more responsive and responsible by constant vigil and supervision. Strengthening the mechanism by launching helpline and distress numbers. Involving local NGOs in the task. Carrying out searches for any evidence of planning on the part of trafficking elements. Ensuring right, strict and timely action against the culprits so that more such elements do not crop up.
Rescuing, rehabilitating and resettling the victims with special care and secrecy so that they do not fall in the wrath of further social trauma. Educating the locals about basic safety methods. Making the children aware of good and bad elements of the society so that they do not trust anybody for little favours or monetary baits. Sensitising the people in general and promoting a culture of vigilance and self defence by regular community interactions.
Most of them are used in India by farmers and are found at alarming levels on vegetables and fruits.